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The 2014 european elections

The 2014 european elections

Critical issues:


Indeed, this parliament shares the legislative power of the Union with the European Council.

It is currently composed of 766 MEPs (members of parliament). The next parliament will be run by only 751 deputies. These elections will be held through direct universal suffrage and proportional representation. The EU countries have a number of seats proportionally to the size of their population. The fact that voters directly elect their deputies makes the parliament a very powerful institution. MEPs will be responsible for approving -or not- the candidate for the European Commission presidency who’s responsibility is the executive power of the Union.


The main question: abstention 


The European elections have always been known for having a higher abstention rate than the average…


Abstention rate from 1979 to 2009 :


European elections could unfortunately reach a new abstention record in 2014.



We can notice that, for the first time, the extreme right wing party, the National Front (FN), could get a better score than the two traditional parties : the socialist party (PS) and the traditional right wing party (UMP).


The results of this election will be announced on May 25.

Voting is not only a right, it is a civic duty.

“To make democracy work, we must be a notion of participants, not simply observers. One who does not vote has no right to complain.” 

– Louis L’Amour



The president of the commission is named by the European council which represents the 28 countries of the EU. The appointment must be approved by the European parliament which also approves of the 26 other commissioners. The president is elected for 5 years, which are renewable.
Since the creation of the treaty of Lisbon, the European council has had to propose to the parliament a president taking into account the election in the European parliament.
For the European election of 2014, the parliament decided that each political group could present an only candidate.
Currently and since 2004, José Manuel Barroso has been the president of the commission.
So, there are representatives of each party to the election:
José Bové :

Has been chosen to represent the « greens » in this election for the president of the commission. He is currently the vice-president of the agriculture commission and of sustainable development in the parliament.
Jean-Claude Juncker :

He is applying for the presidency and he represents the PPE, a right wing party. He was the first president of the euro-group during 8 years and he was the first minister of the Luxembourg for more than 20 years.
Franziska Zeller:

Born on November 22nd, 1981 in Wilhelm Pieck-Stadt-Guben (Brandenburg), in the former East Germany, Franziska Keller is a MEP of the Green Party (Die Grünen). After the primary organized by his party, Keller is selected (and her partner José Bové) as a candidate of the party for the presidency of the European Commission.
Franziska Keller was elected to Parliament in 2009 on the list of the German Greens (Die Grünen). At the age of 28, “Ska Keller” entered the Strasbourg assembly room where she became a member of the Committee on International Trade and the Delegation to the Parliamentary Committee EU-Turkey.

Martin Schulz:

Martin Schulz is the President of the European Parliament and the European Socialist Party candidate in 2014 as President of the European Commission.
He was born on December 20th, 1955. From the age of 19 he joined the German Social Democratic Party (SPD). Ten years later in 1984, he was elected to City Council Würselen, then mayor of the city at the age of 31, a position he held until 1998.
His European career began in 1994 when he was elected as an MEP (Member of the European Parliament). Since then, he has constantly been re-elected, and is gaining importance within the institution. He continues his career following the same idea :” Parliament should be the same level as the Commission and the European Council debating and controlling their proposals”
Martin Schulz wants to politicize the choice of the President of the Commission, and allow citizens to choose “between a European center-right and center-left Europe, a liberal and a socialist Europe, to help its democratization.”

Alexis Tsipras
Alexis Tspiras

He was born in Athens in 1974. He began his political career as an Activist of the Communist Youth during the years of college and high school. Two years later, in 2006, he was a candidate in the municipal election in Athens. He came in third with a score of 10.5%.
Finally he became president of SYNASPISMOS between 2008 and for the first time he entered the national parliament the following year. In 2009, at the age of 35, he became head of the left coalition SYRIZA.
It was during the general elections in May 2012 that the name Alexis Tsipras became familiar to the ears of Europeans. With 16.78% of the votes (and 52 Members of the Greek Parliament), SYRIZA became the first left force. The Greek president asked him to make a coalition government but nor New Democracy or SYRIZA or the other succeed. In June 2012, new election, 26.89% of the vote, for a total of 71 representatives in parliament in Athens.
On December 15th, 2013 Alexis Tsipras was named candidate of the European Left to the Presidency of the European Commission. His most important priorities are to save Greece from the economic crisis and a moratorium concerning debt service.

Guy Verhofstadt – Belgian


Guy Verhofstadt has been a MEP since 2009. Jurist by training, he was nicknamed “Baby Thatcher” because of his age and his radical positions. He is the former Belgian Prime Minister candidate in 2014 for the post of President of the European Commission.
He was the favourite to succeed Romano Prodi in 2004 and was competing in front of José Manuel Barroso in 2010 He was supported by the French President Jacques Chirac and German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder But he was faced with a british refusal because of his opposition concerning the war in Iraq. European Personality leading, he campaigned for a federal Europe.
His commitment to Europe was noticed when he launched in 2001 in Laeken, under the Belgian Presidency of the EU, the process leading to the Constitutional Treaty.

For the first time in the history of the EU, it is the voters who will nominate, through the elected parliamentarians, the future President of the Commission, who will come from the European party winning won the election … The heads of State and Government will take into account the proposals of parliament but it will always be the ones who appoint, after lengthy negotiations, the successor to the Portuguese conservative Jose Manuel Barroso.
Currently, Jean-Claude Juncker seems to be the favourite .

Visiting Brussels

When we hear the name « Brussels », we immediately think of the European district, the place where all the major decisions are made and where the laws are discussed. It is true that the European district is an important part of the Belgian capital city, but there are also other places that we shouldn’t miss if we go to Brussels.

First, visiting Brussels, is visiting its European district which is one of the most modern part of the east side of the city. This district was originally inhabited by the “upper class”, but people had to leave so that the offices could be built during the 1960’s. It can explain the presence of some ancient and elegant buildings right in the middle of modern and imposing constructions.
We are going to highlight these institutions that make up European Brussels. In fact, the European Union has its main base of operation in Brussels. Among these institutions , the most important of them are the European Commission, the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the European Council. Moreover, many countries also have their embassies based in Brussels to make the most of the proximity to the European institutions. There are about 210 foreign embassies and consulates in Brussels. These embassies and consulates, ranging from A to Z (Afghanistan – Zimbabwe), represent their countries within Belgium. Moreover, it is not just the countries which have embassies in Brussels, almost each Region of the European countries has one. That is the case for example of the “Bureau Franche-Comté/Bourgogne” where we went to listen to people explaining us their lobbying activities.
First of all, it’s important to explain again what the role of the EU is : the work of the European Union is carried out by different European institutions based in Brussels, Luxembourg and Strasbourg, in France. Each European institution plays a unique role to generate a democratic process for law and policy development for member countries. The major administrative branch of the European Union is the European Commission whose responsibility is to draft proposals for laws and policy. These laws are then discussed and approved by the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament. Once the European Union laws are passed, the European Commission also ensures they are implemented by member countries.
Then, the European Parliament is the EU institution representing the 470 million members of the European Union , it’s the only institution of the European Union directly elected by the citizens. The European Parliament has three fundamental powers: legislative power, budgetary power and political control of the European institutions. The European Parliament acts as the law and policy checker, it is able to amend, delay and reject laws and policies put forward by the European Commission and also makes recommendations for new European Union laws but can’t put forward new proposals. The European Parliament consists of  representatives from the  member states elected every five years, indeed, all EU citizens are eligible to vote from the age of 18 .

The Parliament
The council of ministers is a meeting of specific ministers of member countries to discuss specific laws and policies . The chairman of these meetings is the President of the Council – currently changing on a 6-month rotation basis between heads of state. The European Council is a summit of heads of state of member countries. In Brussels, this council is held four times a year and attended by two representatives from each country . They are chaired by the presiding President of the Council at the time and the outcomes of this meeting steers the direction for future laws and policy drafts. Here is a little anecdote : our guide told us that at the top of the building of the European Council, there was a gastronomic restaurant where 28 chefs coming from the 28 European countries cook. Moreover, every 6 months, a top chef  is appointed, just like the ministers at the European Council. What a remarkable European sense, isn’t it ?


But, visiting Brussels, is also visiting its city centre.
You can’t miss the Grand-Place, which is one of the most beautiful places in the world. It is a calm and peaceful place, which has been considered as the heart of Brussels from centuries.

Town Center
The City Hall which is on the Grand Place is one of the best known monuments of the capital, its style is gothic and it has got a tower drawn by Van Ruysbroeck on top of which the statue of Saint Michel, Brussels’ symbol, overlooks the square.
The king’s house, also on the Grand Place, in front of the City Hall, is the building where there is the museum of the city of Brussels, which explains the city’s history thanks to different works of art.
The houses of different corporations surround the Grand Place with their baroque facades.
Then, there is the Manneken Pis, a little statue made by Jerôme Duquesney in 1619 in order to provide the district with water. This sculpture was called “the little Julien” as a tribute to another statue which looked like it and was already there at XVth century. It is said that to preserve the decency of the Manneken Pis, we must offer him clothes. As surprising as it may be, this little peeing boy is one of the most important symbols of Belgium !
The Royal Galleries of Saint Hubert, are the most beautiful Streets in Brussels. They gather all the luxury stores, a cinema and cafés.
Brussels also has other district like the Sablon where there is little square and Church, or Saint Michel and Gudule cathedral,  which is really immense. Many important museums are there, for example the museum of musical instruments,  the Magritte museum, the royal museum of art, or also the museum of  comic strip.


Don’t forget to mention two other aspects fixed in the Belgian culture : chocolates and comics ! On top of the numerous chocolate shops and sculptures of belgian comics’ heroes, we could not leave Brussels without learning more about both ubiquitous Belgian prides. That is why we went to a chocolate factory where we successively learned the chef’s story, tasted and compared the chocolates of the chef, and made our own mendiants. We also visited the comic strip museum, the 9th art, the symbol of Belgium. For one hour and a half, we went back into childhood and discovered heroes, old or new techniques, models and unknown adventures.

bragathechoc4 agaterlierj agatelierl bragathechoc1 bragathede1   BRgroupe

Finally, we can say that visiting Brussels is being immersed in a city with numerous facets. From the European district with its imposing buildings to the baroque facades of the Grand Place, including the worldwide known Manneken pis and the specialities such as chocolates, waffles or fries ; Brussels offers tourists many various attractions. It was a great trip on many levels and we will remember this European capital for a long time.

The European Council (referred to as a European Summit) is the highest political body of the European Union. It is made of all the heads of state or government of the Union’s member states presided by the President of the European Commission. The country which holds the Presidency of the Council of the European Union also leads its assemblies.

The Council has no formal executive or legislative powers. It is an institution that deals with very important issues and any decisions made are “a major impetus in defining the general political guidelines of the European Union”. The Council meets at least twice a year; usually in the Justus Lipsius building, the district of the Council of the European Union (Consilium) of Brussels

Currently, the president of the European Council is Herman Van Rompuy.

The Council of the European Union (sometimes just called the Council and sometimes still referred to as the Council of Ministers) is the third of the seven institutions of the European Union as listed in the Treaty on the European Union.

It is part of the essentially bicameral EU legislature, representing the executives of the EU member states, the other legislative body being the European Parliament. The Council is composed of several configurations of twenty-eight national ministers (one per state). The exact membership of the configuration depends upon the topic; for example, when discussing agricultural policy the Council is formed by the twenty-eight national ministers whose portfolio includes this policy area (with the related European Commissioner contributing but not voting).

The Presidency of the Council rotates every six months among the governments of EU member states, with the relevant ministers of the respective country holding the Presidency at any given time ensuring the smooth running of the meetings and setting the daily agenda. The continuity between presidencies is provided by an arrangement under which three successive presidencies, known as Presidency trios, share common political programmes. The Foreign Affairs Council (national foreign ministers) is however chaired by the Union’s High Representative. The Council is administered by the Council’s General Secretary.

Its decisions are made by qualified majority voting in most areas, unanimity in others. Usually when it operates unanimously, it only needs to consult the Parliament. However, in most areas the ordinary legislative procedure applies meaning both Council and Parliament share legislative and budgetary powers equally, meaning both have to agree for a proposal to be passed. In a few limited areas the Council may initiate new EU law itself.


  • The European Parliament


A bit of history…

On May 9th, 1950, Robert Schuman, the French minister of Foreign Affairs, proposed to the European countries to pool their productions of coal and steel in order to establish a continent governed by peace. From that moment, Europe began to move towards integration. After the creation of the EEC in 1957, the European institutions shared their power into : the Commission (supranational element), the Council of Ministers who represented the members of the European Union,  and the Parliamentary Assembly who only had an advisory role. But, with the single European Act in 1986 and lately, with the treaty of Lisbon in 2007,  the power of the European Parliament increased. The goal was to make the mechanisms of the European Union more efficient and transparent.

What’s the role of the Parliament ?

Let’s sum up shortly what the role of the European Parliament is, and why it is such an important institution. The European Parliament represents the citizens of the different countries of  European Union. The 766 deputies are elected by the citizens through direct universal suffrage. Once they are elected, they are in charge of the adoption of laws and budget for five years with the 27 ministers of the Council of Union. But, in case of non-agreement for the no compulsory expenditures, the European Parliament has the last word.

In the Parliament, there are different groups. All of them have different ideas and they try to establish laws which correspond to their views of the European Union. The majority of the deputies come from Germany, France, Italy and the United-Kingdom. Moreover, the deputies approve of the president and of the composition of the Commission. It can force the latter to resign with the motion of censure. It was the case with the « Santer Commission » in March 1999. But, the European Parliament has limits : it is not in charge of the economic and tax policies in the Euro area and of the European  security and defence policy. The European Parliament  lies in Strasbourg. That’s where the monthly plenary sessions takes place. Commissions and the other sessions take place in Bruxelles.

What were the main projects directed by the European Parliament ?

Through its veto, the European Parliament could reject the « Patentability of biotechnological » inventions in 1995 and the « Directive on port services » in 2003 and 2005. There were a lot of actions like these directed by the European Parliament.

To put it in a nutshell, we can say that the European Parliament is important because it is the representation of the citizens of the European Union and each citizen ought to vote in order to support  a European Union with a budget and laws which correspond to his expectations. Unfortunately, we can notice that the elections of the European deputies seem to be less and less important to the electors because the abstention rate keeps on increasing year after year.


  • The Eurodeputies

Today, the European Parliament is composed of 766 eurodeputies elected by direct universal suffrage for  five year in the 28 Member States of European Union. But after the next election, which will take place the 25th of may,  thye will be only 751 to be elected.

How are allocated the seats in the European Parliament ?

The number of seats allocated by country depend of its number of inhabitants.. The countries with the most important population elect more deputies than the others.  So, Germany, the most populous country of European Union will send 96 deputies to the European  Parlement after the elections of 2014, the France will send 74 deputies, UK and Italia 73 each one. Conversely, the less populous  countries, like Cyprus, Estonia, Luxembourg and Malta, will send only 6 deputies to the parliament.

The importance of political groups :

In the hemicycle, deputies don’t sit randomly. They are, in the most of cases, attached to multinational organizations called : Political groups. It’s through the membership of a political groupe, that is organized the work of a deputy. Even if a little part of them, in the most of cases from extreme right, sit as non-registered because they did’nt form a group.

But the membership to a political group don’t prevent the deputies to vote individually and to express his own opinion.

The main role of the deputy :

His goal is to vote the law propositions of the European commision, and, if it necessary, to propose some amendments. According to his political groups, his personal convictions, his country membership, each eurodeputy approves or rejects the amendments or the whole law proposition.  The deputies can also propose an initiative report (they suggest to the European commission to legislate one subject), or ask for a consultation (the Parliament give its opinion about the legislative propositions that it can’t vote before that the council adopt it).

But the most qualified and experimented deputies can access to most important functions in the parliament like group president,  president of parliamentary committee, coordinator… Martin Schulz was the president of the group of socialist democrats before being president of the European Parliament.


To complete his mission, the eurodeputy has to both be present in his district, sit in commission at Bruxelles and to go to Strabourg, one or two times a month, for plenary sessions. All the deputies are at least member  of one commission. There is 20 commissions in European Parliament which gather from 24 to 76 deputies and got its own office and secretariat, each one is specialized in a particular domain.

  • The political groups

The system can work in spite of the big diversity of opinions and nationalities which characterizes it, members of parliament always got organized in ” political transnational groups “, each of them consisting of members of parliament stemming from various countries, but having similar political convictions. To cooperate closely with members of parliament of the other countries sharing almost the same political beliefs as them is, for the European Members, the best way to reach their goals at the European level.

The European Parliament counts nowadays seven political groups, have to consist of at least 25 members of parliament elected in at least a quarter of Member states, covering all the political trends and representing more than 160 national parties.

The groups take on a crucial importance for the activities of the Parliament. Their role is essential when it is a question of releasing majorities of vote concerning the legislation, the budget and the other questions. They establish the agenda of the Parliament and play a decisive role in the election of the President of the Parliament and the other holders of mandate.

It never happened, in the history of the Parliament, that a single group holds the absolute majority. That is why, to adopt the legislation of the Union and to approve the budget, the groups have to try hard to obtain the necessary majority by negotiation and compromise. The mutual concessions between the groups are essential, knowing obviously that the weight of a group depends on its size. It is the day of the European elections that the voters will decide on the balance of power between the groups, essentially by the 8 big European countries.

The Composition of the European parliament until May 2014:

–              EPP-ED : Group of the European People’s Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats, 265 seats

–              PES : Group of the Party of European Socialists, 184 seats

–              ALDE : Group of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe, 84 seats

–              GREENS/EFA : Group of the Greens/European Free Alliance, 55 seats

–              ECR : European Conservatives and Reformists Group, 54 seats

–              GUE/NGL : Confederal Group of the European United Left/Nordic Green Left, 35 seats

–              EFD : Europe of Freedom and Democracy Group, 32 seats

–              NI : Non-attached, 27 seats



More explanations about some parties :


The European People’s Party (EPP) is the largest and most influential group in the European parliament with 265 deputies. They want to continue to build the achievement of the European Union and make a continue effort to foster good relations with European’s voices is heard throughout the world. Their priorities are:

–              Protecting the euro: push for more financial governance in Europe, obliging member states to either keep strict budget discipline, or else to be sanctioned. And advocate more pooling of financial resources among the member states.

–              A free but responsible financial market which operate within a clear legal framework.

–              A learning Europe to challenge competitors: educating and training are crucial, and Europe’s education system must be state of the art, from primary education right up to universities and beyond.

–              Cheaper flights : transparent prices, introduce rules obliging carriers to take the shortest available route, while making air traffic control and air navigation systems more efficient to short travel time and decrease fuel consumption

–              A travelling healthcare scheme

–              New rights for online consumers
–              A fast and secure internet connection with a right to privacy guaranted


               The Alliance of Liberal and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) is the third largest political group in the European Parliament, with 76 deputies. They seek to create a strong and secure European Union with high standards of public health, consumer protection and human rights. Their aim is to build and safeguard a free, fair and open society. Their ambition lies in a political Europe that people can understand and which responds to their needs, a Europe that does not follow others, but takes the lead. Their priorities for the next 5 years are : fighting discrimination, promoting equality; taking responsibility about currency, defending democracy, leading in the world; greening our economy; preserving our planet; tackling recession, generating new jobs.


The European United Left and the Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL) is a green group, with 35 deputies. It fights to ensure European Union decisions will make real difference in stopping global warming and climate change. Their priorities are:

–              Ending the crisis : calls for policies that protect our social services ans help to create new jobs

–              Job creation : works for a new direction in EU jobs policy and fight policies that attack workers’ rights, pay and working conditions

–              Equal opportunities for everyone

–              Nuclear disarmament, both inside and outside Europe

–              Data protection and freedom : fight shady and unfair data collection attempts by governments for “law enforcement” purposes

–              Free health care

European Competition

The European Commission organizes a writing competition. Here is the email that whe have received. You can  apply either in English or in French. The deadline for submissions is 11 May 2014.

Je vous écris de la part de la Commission européenne, Direction générale de l’élargissement dans le cadre d’un concours « Ecrire l’Europe » intitulé « l’Elargissement de l’Europe : qu’est-ce que cela signifie pour toi » organisé à l’intention des jeunes ressortissants de l’Union européenne et des pays candidats à l‘ élargissement.


Dix ans sont passés depuis la plus importante vague d’élargissement de l’Union européenne (EU), lorsque dix nouveaux pays ont adhéré à l’Union. Aujourd’hui, des perspectives d’entrée dans l’UE s’ouvrent à l’Albanie, la Bosnie-Herzégovine, l’ancienne République yougoslave de Macédoine, l’Islande, le Kosovo*, le Monténégro, la Serbie et la Turquie.


Dans ce contexte, Le concours permet aux jeunes de 15-25 ans de  soumettre leurs idées sur les questions suivantes:


<!–[if !supportLists]–>Ø  <!–[endif]–>Quelles leçons les 28 États membres actuels peuvent-ils tirer du passé de l’Union européenne pour améliorer son avenir ?

<!–[if !supportLists]–>Ø  <!–[endif]–>Que signifie pour toi l’élargissement de l’Union européenne ?

Les participants sont appelés à soumettre leurs  idées sous la forme d’un article (maximum 700 mots) ou d’une série de trois blogs (maximum 700 mots). La compétition est ouverte jusqu’au 11 mai prochain.


Les articles seront d’abord soumis à un jury national  qui sélectionnera deux gagnants (un par groupe d’âge : 15-17 ans et 18-25 ans). Ces derniers seront par la suite soumis à un jury international qui choisira les deux meilleurs dans chaque catégorie d’âge à l’échelle européenne.


Nous sommes très intéressés de savoir ce que les jeunes européens pensent de l’Union européenne et de la question de l’élargissement. Nous vous saurions gré à cet effet de nous aider à promouvoir le concours en le mentionnant sur votre site internet ou vos réseaux sociaux et en encourageant vos étudiants à y participer.


Vous trouverez ci-joint le règlement du concours. Nous pouvons également mettre à votre disposition du matériel promotionnel en anglais et français (poster, bannière web, et communiqué de presse ). Voici le lien vers notre page concours :


N’hésitez pas à nous contacter si vous souhaitez plus d’informations.


Merci par anticipation de votre collaboration.


*Cette désignation est sans préjudice des positions sur le statut et est conforme à la résolution 1244/ 1999 du Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies ainsi qu’à l’avis de la CIJ sur la déclaration d’indépendance du Kosovo.


Bien à vous,


Sarah Mahir

International PR

The enlargement of the European Union

The expansion of Europe :

The 20th century has been really shaken by the war which ruined the European continent. This  disaster compelled  the nations to gather in order to prevent  new conflicts  from starting again. Since its creation, the European Community has  led a policy of enlargement. The number of members has grown from 6 to 28.

History :

– The Western nations of  Europe created the Council of Europe in 1949

– The Schuman declaration on May 9th, 1950 is considered as the beginning of the European construction.

– March 25, 1957, the founding states (Belgium, France, Italia, Luxembourg, West Germany and Netherlands) signed the treaty of Rome. This treaty established the European Economic Community (EEC) whose first goal was the free circulation of people, of goods and services between Member States.

–  January  1st 1973,

3 new countries joined the EU (which is not called like this yet) Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom.

     Jens Otto Krag, the Danish State Minister

  Jack Lynch, the Irish Prime Minister (Taoiseach)

 Edward Heath, the British Prime Minister.

– January 1 1981: 

Greece entered the European Union.  It became eligible since its military regime fell and since its democracy returned. The European Union  has then 10 members.

– January 1, 1986: 

Spain and Portugal entered  the Union.

Membership in the union of these two countries was possible after  the overthrow of the Salazar regime in Portugal in 1974 and the death of General Franco of Spain in 1975 which brought an end the last dictatorship in Europe as countries engaged to restore democracy.

– February 7, 1992

Treaty of Maastricht: European community changed its name into to the European Union.

– In 1993, the treaty of Maastricht is applied. It give birth the European union and a new step in the construction of a political community at the continent scale.

–  January 1 1995

Austria, Finland and Sweden joined  the EU.

With the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, Germany was reunified. Former Germany is therefore also entering in the European Union.

– 1997:

The first negotiations with the Union begins with various eastern countries: Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia and with Mediterranean islands such as Cyprus.

Adoption of a series of three criteria that countries will be obliged to fulfil to join the EU: the existence of democratic institutions, the presence of a functioning market economy, and capacity to resume “acquis communautaire”.

– 1 May 2004

After several years of negotiations and reforms 10 new countries joined the European Union: Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia, as well as two islands Cyprus and Malta.

There were 25 Member Countries.

Planned accession for Bulgaria and for Romania under way

Croatia and Turkey are also candidates

– January 1, 2007

Romania and Bulgaria joined EU

Signature of the Treaty in 2005 by Salomon Passy, the Bulgarian Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Meglena Kuneva, the Bulgarian Minister of European Affairs.

Signature of the Treaty in 2005 by the Roumanian President Traian Basescu and Calin Popescu, his Prime Minister.

– July 1st, 2013

Croatia became the 28th member state of the European Union

  Croatian president Ivo Josipovic (left)

Nowadays , eight countries are negotiating to enter the European Union: turkey, the ancient republic of Yugoslavia, Montenegro, Iceland and Serbia. To enter in the European Union, there are different criteria to fullfil:

  •      Political criteria: the state must have a policy based on human rights and with a democracy.
  •      Economic criteria: a great economy and the ability to cope with competition inside the European union.
  •     The ability to apply the policy of the European Union.

In this blog, you have read articles about many different issues, not only about our region, Burgundy, our city, Dijon, but also about the European capitals, the Eurostar, the inequalities in Europe, and so much more information ! Besides, you have been able to recount the actual  history of the European Union, from its creation to nowadays, the criteria that countries which want  to enter the EU have to respect to be accepted, the different meetings of all the European countries ; all of that to make you understand better the functioning, the roles and the meaning of the European Union.

If you have read all these articles seriously, now, you can play to our quiz. Enjoy this game !

France in European’s construction

Drapeau européenAfter World War II, an effort is made to unite the countries of Europe. Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands became united in 1949 with the creation of the Council of Europe. Jean Monnet, a high-ranking French civil servant, and Robert Schuman, a French statesman who will become president of the European Parliament, were at the origin of the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952 to expand the cooperation between the six “founding members”, Jean Monnet is named president of this community.

During the 1950s, Europe needed to be more united than ever because of the Cold War and France wanted an economic union. That’s why, the Treaty of Rome which was signed in 1957, created the European Economic Community in order to let people and goods moving freely in Europe without taxes. Then additional countries joined the community and reduced the influence of France. The Single European Act was signed in 1987. The goal was to create a “single market”. France agreed with this act with the aim of reviving links with Germany. Europe was more unified in 1989 with the destruction of the Berlin Wall. The Treaty of Maastricht which was signed in 1992 created the European Union and was at the base of the creation of a new currency for all Europe, the Euro.

Today, treaties and laws are created by the “institutional triangle” that is composed of the European Council, the European Parliament and the European Commission.

The European Council is composed of the heads of governments. It is in charge of the general policy and priorities.

                         European Council – Brussels, december 2010

The European Parliament counts 754 deputies, 736 have been elected in 2009 for five years among the 27 countries of European Union. Concerning France, it is represented by 74 deputies (about 10% of seats) coming from 8 electoral districts. This Parliament sessions occure in Brussels and Strasbourg. This institution possesses the legislative power.

                                              European Parliament in Strasbourg

The European Commission is made of 28 commissioners (one for each country) including the president and the vice-president. It possesses the executive power.

EU Commission urges Malta to submit river basin plans


The EU Commission in Malta

But the EU includes other institutions like the European Union Justice Court, the European Court of Auditors… The Committee of Regions is also an important institution, it counts 344 members named for 4 years. 24 members are French (7% of members) chosen by the Prime Minister and the Home Secretary. This institution enables local and regional authorities to express their view in the European policy for regions, departments and municipalities. The European Economic and Social Committee is one of the oldest institution, it counts 344 members whose 24 are French (7% of members) who are named by the French government for 4 years. Its role is to advise the other institutions by putting forward their opinion in the economy.

In each institution, France represents the largest part of the seats with Germany, Italy and United Kingdom (except in the Parliament, it is just behind Germany). Moreover, one building of the Parliament is located in Strasbourg. It proves the key role of France in Europe thanks to his influential position. Indeed,  we can say that France runs the European Union with the countries previously quoted.

The last countries entered into the European Union

The EU has been amended a lot geographically speaking. When it was created in 1957, the organisation was composed of 6 nations : Germany, Italy, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg and France. The main reason for this unification was due to Europe’s suffering after the two world wars ; the result of the wars was disastrous politically. The EU went through a huge modification in 1999, when all the member states reached an agreement for the implementation of a unique currency : the euro, which made the commercial exchanges easier between the nations of the EU.

           I/ How do you become a member of the EU?
To join this union, you have to go through a long and complex process. Each nation has to complete all the criteria, and comply with all the rules defined by the EU. During this period, the future members receive many benefits including financial, administrative and technical aid.
The Union had 6 members in 1957 and now it includes 28 members.

                The objectives of the EU
The EU has two main goals: economic prosperity and the promotion of democracy. In other words: To stimulate the economic growth of each country and to consolidate the ideology of democracy, especially ex-dictatorship as in USSR or Germany.

               Which countries can become members of the EU ?
“All European states who respect the principles enounced on the 6th become a member of the union” according to article n°49 of the Maastricht Treaty (1992).
Nowadays, the countries that want to join the EU have to ask the EU council. It judges unanimously after the consultation of the European Committee and the European Parliament. But this membership can be realized thanks to specific criteria, defined in 1993 in Copenhagen during the European Council. These criteria are economic, political, and follow the objectives exposed in the previous  article.

In the accession process, the treaties on which the European Union is based are subject to an agreement between the Member States and the applicant States (confirmations by national parliaments or referendums).

               Which countries can become a member in the future ?
In 2009, the countries who had officially asked to become members were: Turkey, Macedonia and Croatia.
The potential candidates are Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia, Kosovo and Iceland.

                Why become a member state ?
The enlargement of the EU has many advantages for the nations which want to become members.
First, an economic advantage : the disappearance of the customs, and the appearance of a unique market and a monetary union for some of them. Moreover, EU bids to the members the access to a secure market in which all the states have to respect the same rules (protection of consumers, competition etc…)
Secondly, the expansion of the EU allows developing agriculture, hence the membership of such agricultural countries such as Hungary, or Poland.
Thirdly the EU is favorable to the students who want to acquire some new knowledge in different European countries thanks to ERASMUS.
To conclude, the EU will become a massive block, able to face the major global powers. But even if it presents many advantages, the conditions to access to it are not always respected, especially the countries who want to integrate the euro area.

          II/ EU since 2004
In May 2004, the EU hosted 15 new countries, who had also integrated the Schengen space, but not the one which have integrated the EU since 2007.
In 2002 : Cyprus, Estonia, Hungry, Latvia, Malta, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia.
Today the EU is composed of 28 countries. But this expansion creates advantages and disadvantages.
The positive face is that the territory has increased by 25% and the population by 20%. But the dark side is that the GDP per capita only increased by 5% and the disparity are twice as much as before.
But, we can see that the gap between the new members and the older members has been reduced before the crisis of 2009, because after that the new members have been more affected than the other members, they saw their growth stopped.


POLAND : This country had a broad favorable public opinion. Among the 28 countries that compose the EU, Poland remains the most enthusiastic. This country has a large share in the vote at the European Council (the same as Spain) : 50 members at the center of the European Parliament. In total, since its admission, Poland has received EUR 50 billion in aid. The situation changed for the worse in 2009, but the GDP growth has remained positive.

THE CZECH REPUBLIC : The Czech policy is very liberal and it advocates the idea of a Europe without borders. But the political party represented at the parliament remains suspicious about the means made by the EU. The increase of the Czech public deficit delays its adhesion to the European money, which should happen in 2015-2016.

SLOVAKIA : The adhesion to the EU has been supported by 92% favorable responses to the referendum. The transition from the original currency to the euro was seen as a political objective : it was done in 2009. But this country was really dependent on the automotive industry. Its economy experienced the most significant recession in its history in 2009 with a decrease of 4,7% of its GDP.

ESTONIA : This country pays particular attention to the policies of the EU. It satisfies all the conditions required by this Union and from an economic point of view it has a smaller public debt than the EU. It went through two years of recession (2008-2009) but achieved static growth in 2010.

LATVIA : It attached a lot of importance to it admission to the European Union because it prides itself on its security and prosperity. Latvia has known a huge economic growth thanks to inflation. Moreover this country has also been affected by the economic crisis. That is why it has received international aid of EUR 7, 5 billion After 3 years of recession, Latvia experienced more growth than expected, which enabled it to integrate into the eurozone on 1st January 2010.

LITHUANIA : It was in charge of the external borders of the EU with Russia and Belarus. The priority of the country is to develop an energy policy. Since its adhesion in 2008, Lithuania has known an annual growth rate of 7 and 9%. But in 2009 it was affected by the economic crisis, like all the European countries, and it experienced a recession of 15%, one of the most significant of Europe.

CYPRUS : This adhesion guaranteed security to the Cyprus. The 1st of July 2008, just four years after its acceptance into the EU, Cyprus adopted the euro. Cypriots are very involved in Europe. They had a really high level of participation for the last European election. This country has not grown economically since the crisis of 2009.

MALTA : The adhesion of Malta was complicated, and triggered a national political debate. But now, this country has succeeded in meeting all the necessary requirements for admission, and became a member of the eurozone in 2008. The GDP has increased by 0, 9% after the end of the crisis. Nowadays, the Maltese are proud of their European nationality.

BULGARIA : This country deals with its foreign policy problems first, and has created a system of cooperation and verification. Thanks to this, Bulgaria has made advances in fighting corruption, laundering, and organized crime. Its main objectives remain the adhesion to the Schengen space and the eurozone.

ROMANIA : In terms of economic development, Romania received EUR 20 billion from 2007 to 2013. Romanians sees this integration as a break-up with the communism period. It was one of the more productive European countries before the crisis, and now it has to ask for international financial aid to settle its problems.

CROATIA : This country filed its application in 2003, but the Member states were in a bad economic situation at that time. The GDP of Croatia is 40% under the European level, and 20% of its population is unemployed. So its population remains doubtful for the adhesion of Croatia to the EU, which is violently affected by the crisis. This country will join the Schengen space and adopt the euro in 2015. Finally, this country received EUR 15 billion before becoming a European state.

 By Joséphine and Pauline.

Since the advent of the European Union, politicians have increasingly emphasized the notion of a European social model as an alternative to the American form of market capitalism.

European countries share common references, among which there are a number of values. Europeans are committed to democracy, human rights and the right of peoples to self-determination. They were even part of the criteria for the accession to the European Union.

In the economic sphere, the process of industrialization first started in Europe. Europe is also the birthplace of economic liberalism as Marxism and socialism. There is therefore still a European identity. Finally, in 2007, 67% of the Europeans believed that European countries had much in common culturally and in terms of values (peace, tolerance, respect for fundamental freedoms).

European countries are united by many things such as the currency (the €uro) or the European Institutions (European Parliament) but they have different backgrounds, cultures, they speak different languages..

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To put it in a nutshell, we can say that European Countries are “united in diversity”, and this motto is indeed the European Motto.

We will take the Eurostar to go from Brussels to London on Thursday, April 17th. The idea is to show that Europe also means the possibility to move quickly from one capital city to another. It is an easy way to cross cultures…
Eurostar is a high-speed railway service connecting London with Paris and Brussels. All its trains go through the Channel tunnel between the United Kingdom and France
In Brussels, we will leave from  Midi Station quite early in the morning.
It will take us two hours to go from Brussels to London, but because of the time lag, we will arrive only one hour after the departure…
The history of Eurostar can be traced to the 1986 choice of a rail tunnel to provide a cross-channel link between Britain and France.
Zeremonie zur Ankunft der Tunnelbohrmaschine AMELI im finalen Zielschacht am 4. Juni 2012Ceremony on occasion of the arrival of the tunnel boring machine AMELI in the final reception shaft on 4 June 2012            Siemens-Velaro-under-construction
The tunnel was finished in 1993, the official opening taking place in May 1994. The Channel Tunnel is a crucial part of the route as it is the only rail connection between Great Britain and the European mainland. Tunnelling began in 1988, and the 50.5-kilometre tunnel was officially opened by the British sovereign Queen Elizabeth II and the French President François Mitterrand at a ceremony in Calais on May, 6th 1994.
On 14th November 1994 Eurostar services began between Waterloo International station in London, Gare du Nord in Paris and Brussels-South railway station in Brussels.
 In 1995 Eurostar was achieving an average end-to-end speed of 171.5 km/h (106.6 mph) between London and Paris.
Eurostar relocated from Waterloo Station to St Pancras International in 2007. This is were we will arrive. The building is beautiful, the original building dates back from the end of the XIXth century.
eurostar                                    portal-graphics-20_1157354a
The Channel Tunnel used by Eurostar services holds the record for having the longest undersea section anywhere in the world. A Eurostar train set a new British speed record of 334.7 km/h (208.0 mph) on 30 July 2003.
On 20 September 2007, Eurostar broke another record when it completed the journey from Brussels to London in 1 hour, 43 minutes. Our journey will be slightly longer, but, obviously, safer!
Eurostar offers up to sixteen weekday London – Paris services, and ten London–Lille and Brussels services.

Because the UK is not part of the Schengen Area, and because Belgium and France are not part of the Common Travel Area, all Eurostar passengers must go through border controls.
An advantage held by Eurostar is the convenience and speed of the service: with shorter check-in times than at most airports and hence quicker boarding and less queueing and high punctuality, it takes less time to travel between central London and central Paris by high-speed rail than it does by air.
In 2006 Eurostar’s Environment Group was set up, with the aim of making changes in the Eurostar services’ daily running to decrease the environmental impact, the organisation setting itself a target of reducing carbon emissions per passenger journey by 25% by 2012. Drivers are trained in techniques to achieve maximum energy efficiency, and lighting has been minimised. In the grand opening ceremony of St Pancras International, one of the Eurostar trains was given the name ‘Tread Lightly’, said to symbolise their smaller impact on the environment compared to planes.
The trains are essentially modified TGV sets,and can operate at up to 300 kilometres per hour on high-speed lines, and 160 kilometres per hour in the Channel Tunnel. It is possible to exceed the 300-kilometre-per-hour speed limit, but only with special permission from the safety authorities in the respective country.

Dijon and its suburbs « Grand Dijon » took part in 2009, in three European cooperation projects concerning priorities for the Dijon area , namely the fight against global warming, the development of urban transports and rail high speed lines.

Dijon got involved in the European movement to promote sustainable energies. It took place in Brussels , on Tuesday, Feb. 10th, 2009. Dijon municipality is involved in the project entitled ” Covenant of Mayors .” This agreement has been, so far, the most ambitious to encourage local authorities and citizens to go beyond the EU energy and climate objectives. The local communities involved in this project, will put all their resources in place to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to promote renewable energies. They hope this decrease will reach 20% in 2020.

For the city of Dijon , being a member of this European project, is a great opportunity concerning the policy of sustainable development and urban ecology . Nevertheless, thanks to their membership, the city of Dijon will benefit from technical assistance and financial support from the European Commission in the development of their future projects.

 A European reform : the high speed line and the tramway in Dijon.

As you know, “united we stand, divided we fall”. This proverb could apply to the tramway in Dijon. Indeed, this project was the result of a fruitful cooperation between the Burgundy Council and Europe.


Let us explain to you…

Dijon agglomeration was involved in a project that is called TramStore21 . The European expert assessment helped the establishment of a tram line in « Grand Dijon ». Many communities were involved in this project, such as Brussels (Belgium) , Blackpool ( Great Britain) and Rotterdam ( Netherlands) .

This approach is also part of the European Interreg program. The aim was to create sustainable deposits, to find solutions in terms of innovation.

The impacts on the inhabitants of the city concerning the tramway line, and also the building materials and the work management were the different axes which have been put in place.

However, Dijon took part  in a European project which aimed at creating a TGV station in town. This project, supported by the Italian partner of the city of Dijon, Reggio nell’Emilia , aimed at enabling public organizations , and especially for local authority partners , to analyze the economic, social , cultural and environmental consequences of the host a high-speed railway station in the city. This initiative was directed with other communities in order to host a train station. These cities were Ciudad Real ( Spain) , Valladolid (Spain) , Ulm (Germany) , Rogaland (Norway), Radom (Poland) and the Universities of Ferrara (Italy) and Warsaw (Poland). To do this, a co-financing Interreg Community program was asked .

This project enables the city to continue its efforts for the progressive implementation of the high-speed line Rhine -Rhône and the creation of the high speed train station at Porte -Neuve in 2020-2025 .

To conclude !

Finally, the involvement of Grand Dijon in these projects, supports sustainable development policies in Europe because it will influence as many cities as possible to invest themselves in  similar European projects , in order to save the environment and our Earth.


After visiting the blog, you may now have new knowledge so try to play these games on the European Union to be the strongest! And without cheating of course! Good luck!

Do you really know the cartography of the union in which we live? This is the time to check it so beat them all!


Actually, you have already done the little quizz on the European Union map, now we gonna see if you are able to find the 28 capitals of the European’s countries. You don’t have just to know the French capital but all the ones which are in our territory !


Confront yourself with this little crossword puzzle in which you have to find some dates, symbols or cities all about European Union.


Have fun, you will see that it is not that easy!

Social inequalities in Europe

To begin with, let’s define what a social inequality is:

There are two kinds of social inequalities: the inequality of conditions which refers to the differences in incomes, wealth and material goods between different people in society and the inequality of opportunities refers to education and health status which are the main notions that enable to benefit from a good social status.

In the whole world, there are many social inequalities: for instance, between developed countries, developing countries and least developed countries.

But let’s focus on Europe:

All the Europeans benefit from a good social protection, but the economic crisis and unemployment increase the inequalities.


The European Union has a secondary role in the social field even if it admitted the necessity to give to Europeans some basics rights: benefiting from family allowance or parental leave to raise children, benefiting from maternity ward or treatment in case of accident, receiving a pension…  These rights have been adopted in all the European countries, even if it took many years. However, each country has its own system to finance health and pensions for its citizens. This financing is mainly insured by the citizens themselves through social security contributions of employers and workers but also by income taxes.


The inhabitants of the European Union benefit from a much better social protection than the ones from other countries, even the richer ones, like the USA. Nevertheless, inequalities persist: there are the most thriving countries which spend the greatest amount of money on social protection. For instance, the Danish and the Dutch, who have the highest standards of living, dedicate more than 30% of their GNP to social protection!  But because of the increase of population and its aging, financing pensions or medical care becomes more and more difficult for the states. Most of the Europeans choose to save up money or to subscribe insurances, but that’s not possible for all the Europeans.

With the economic crisis, unemployment keeps increasing. Thus the number of poor also keeps increasing. They are almost 50 million in the European Union. Are considered as poor, the people whose incomes are so low that their living-conditions are miserable. In Europe, the law insures to the most impoverished the JSA (=the jobseeker’s allowance), that is to say a minimum guaranteed income (in France, it’s called RMI = revenu minimum d’insertion). But from a country to another, this income can vary, creating inequalities.  According to 85% of the Europeans, struggling against joblessness must be a priority for the EU policy.

According to the old Greek myth, Europa, Phoenix and Perimede’s daughter, was a Phoenician princess who was so beautiful that Zeus, the Father of Gods, noticed her and turned into a great white bull, and invited her to ride him. Europe accepted and Zeus took her to Crete, where their three children were born, including Minos, the mythical founder of the Minoan civilization, one the first attested European culture.


Religions d'Europe

The first European religions were polytheist religions, brought by Indo-european-speaking peoples with the extension of agriculture in Europe at the end of the Neolithic period. These religions had similarities between them, and were inspired from Egyptian and Mesopotamian mythologies. Among the most known of them are the Celtic mythology and the Germanic mythology, which were “resurrected” by Wagner’s operas or the more famous Tolkien’s books, and the Greek/Roman mythology which knew a renewed interest during the Renaissance, and which is thanks to the Roman Empire the most famous polytheist religion of Europe.

Since the Roman period, Jewish communities have spread through Europe. Sephardi Jews originally lived in Spain and Portugal and were forced to exile in 1492 by the Catholic Kings of Spain. Sephardi Jews are now mainly located in Italy, Greece and Turkey, and in France since the 1960’s after the independence of Maghreb countries where they lived. The other main Jewish community are Ashkenazim Jews, whose origin is not really known. One hypothesis is that they lived in the Khazar Empire, which was a Jewish state of southern actual Russia and which collapsed with Russian invasions. Ashkenazim Jews live nowadays in Central and Eastern Europe, France and Great Britain, but the majority of them were killed during the Holocaust.

Christianity, which is the major religion in Europe, appeared during the first centuries of our era. It became the official religion of the Roman Empire in the IVth century AD, and was adopted by the Barbarian kingdoms after the collapse of the Roman Empire. Originally, Christianity was a unified religion, but there are three main churches nowadays: Catholicism, Orthodoxy and Protestantism. Catholicism corresponds to the Roman Church, lead by the Pope which is considered as the incarnation of Saint Peter. This religion is located in Western and Central Europe.

Eastern Christian churches (Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem) separated from the Roman Church in 1054 (Great Schism). They are considered as “Orthodox Christianity”, but don’t consist in a unified Church. Indeed, Orthodoxy is composed of independent Churches lead by Patriarchs, the most powerful being the Church of Constantinople thanks to the extension of the Byzantine Empire. Nowadays, Orthodoxy is located in the Balkans, Cyprus and Eastern Europe.

Protestantism appeared at the end of the Middle Age with Luther’s thesis (Protestant reformations). Protestantism is not lead by a Pope or a Patriarch, because Luther rejected the clergy. An other Protestant branch is Calvinism, located in Switzerland, French Protestant minorities and Scotland. Lutheranism is more widespread: Germany, Netherlands, Scandinavia and Baltic States. The Anglican Church is a totally independent Church, considered as Protestant but closer to Catholicism, lead by the British monarch.

Islam was introduced in Europe with the Ottoman invasion of Balkans. This religion originally appeared in Arabic peninsula and extended to Middle East, Central Asia and Northern Africa. Muslim countries in Europe are Albania and Bosnia in the Balkans, Turkish communities in Bulgaria, and Caucasian peoples in southern Russia. We can of course notice Turkey, if it is regarded as a European country. European Muslims are Sunni, like the majority of Muslims. However, Azerbaijan is a Shiite country. Islam is also present in Western Europe thanks to recent immigration (France, Belgium, United Kingdom).

We can also notice Buddhism in the Russian republic of Kalmykia, peopled by Mongols who descend from Genghis Khan’s armies who invaded Eastern Europe in the XIIIth century.


Langues en Europe

Indo-European languages are the majority of European languages. They were brought in the continent from Anatolia or Eastern Europe with the introduction of agriculture. They are now divided into several families : Baltic languages, in Latvia and Lithuania (so-called Baltic States), Celtic languages in the British isles, Germanic languages in Northern (Scandinavia, British isles) and Central Europe (Germany, Switzerland, Austria), Romance languages (which descend from Latin language) in Southwestern Europe and Romania, Slavic languages in Eastern and Central Europe and in the Balkans, and isolated languages such as Albanian and Greek languages in Southern Balkans. An Asiatic branch of Indo-european languages is spoken in the periphery of Europe: Iranian languages in Kurdistan (Turkey) and Central Caucasus.

There are also some languages which don’t belong to this huge family. Basque language (Basque country in France and Spain), Georgian language (Georgia) and Caucasian languages (Northern Caucasus) are part of languages spoken in Paleolithic Europe and are now located in isolated mountainous areas. Altaic languages like Turkish and Finn-Ugric languages such as Finnish, Estonian and Hungarian languages were introduced more recently from Central Asia and Siberia. Maltese language of Malta island is an Arabic dialect.

Some of these languages have an official status, but a lot of them are spoken by ethnic minorities. The European Union, in its cultural policy, aims at protecting these languages and peoples, with two major texts: the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.

The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages aims at protecting these languages in several fields: education, justice, public services, medias, cultural activities, social and economic life. Many European countries have signed it, so had France but it hadn’t ratified it yet, because this charter is in disagreement with its Constitution.

The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities ensures the rights of ethnic minorities. Many European countries have signed it, but France hadn’t, according to its Constitution. This attitude can however have negative consequences, like the extinction of regional languages, regarded as a cultural wealth.


                  The founding countries (1957) :

   Belgium            France           Germany        Italy              Luxembourg            The Netherlands

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The European Union: a time-line

January 14th, 1962: adoption of the first regulations on the Common Agricultural Policy

July 1st, 1968: realization of the Customs Union enters the Six

europe des 6

The customs duties between the six members of the EEC are completely removed. A common customs tariff is set on the external borders of the EEC.

January 1st, 1973: Europe of the 6 in Europe of the 9

The first widening of the EEC with the accession of

Denmark,            Ireland                 and the United Kingdom.

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June 14th, 1985: signature of the Schengen Agreements

In Schengen, Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and FRG sign  the agreements planning the progressive abolition of the borders between these States and the free movement of persons.

But the convention of implementation of the agreement is signed only on June 19th, 1990 and is actually implemented on March 26th, 1995.

February 7th, 1992: signature of the treaty of Maastricht which creates the European Union

In Maastricht, in February the treaty on the European Union is signed. This one is based on 3 pillars: the Communities (ECSC, EC, EAEC), the foreign politics and of common security (CFSP), co-operation justice home matters. Besides, the EEC becomes the European Community (EC).

In this Treaty of Maastricht, a European citizenship is instituted, the powers of the European Parliament are reinforced, and the economic and monetary Union (UEM) is launched. The treaty of Maastricht is implemented on November 1st, 1993.

January 1st, 1995: Europe of the 15

europe des 15

The fourth widening with the entry of Austria, Finland, and of Sweden in European Union (EU).

January 1st, 1999: The Euro becomes the single currency of 11 of the Member States

11 States now form the “euro zone”: Austria, Belgium, Spain, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and FRG. The euro then becomes officially the legal currency of these States.

Greece will join them on January 1st, 2001, Slovenia on January 1st, 2007, Cyprus and Malta on January 1st, 2008, Slovakia on January 1st, 2009, Estonia on January 1st, 2011 and Latvia on January 1st, 2014, thus rising to 18 the number of countries in the “euro zone”.


The coins and the notes in euro were released only on January 1st, 2002. But the individuals could already pay their taxes or issue cheques in Euros by 1999.

April 16th, 2003: towards a Europe with 25

 eurrope 15

A Treaty of Accession at the EU of ten new States is signed in Athens. It is about Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia. To come into effect, the treaty must be ratified by the Fifteen and the ten new members before May 1st, 2004. It is on this date that their entry in the Union becomes effective.

October 29th, 2004: European signature of the constitution project

Gathered in Brussels on June 17th and 18th, 2004, the leaders of the 25 States of the European Union adopt, after ultimate and difficult negotiations, the first “constitutional treaty” of the European Union. Signed in Rome on October 29th, 2004, it gathers in only one document, simpler and readable, all of the texts which organize the operation of the EU. For the European Constitution to be implemented, it must be ratified by each State before the end of 2006. 

January 1st, 2007: Europe with 27

 The Treaty of Accession signed on April 25th, 2005 becomes effective. Romania and Bulgaria become members of the European Union.

July 1st, 2013: Europe with 28


The Treaty of Accession  signed in Brussels on December 9th, 2011 becomes effective. Croatia becomes the 28th member of the European Union. The population of the EU reaches  more than 508 million people from now on.

Procedures to enter the European Union.

Any European State […] can ask to become member of the Union”, provided it respects its values (freedom, democracy, respect of the human rights, fundamental freedoms and the Rule of law) (Article 49 of the treaty on the EU).

Process of adhesion :

Any application to join is the object of an opinion of the Commission, and a Council Decision, which allots a statute of applicant country to the petitioning country. This statute does not necessarily lead to the immediate opening of the negotiations for adhesion. For that, the applicant country must match a certain number of conditions.

The country must answer the criteria of eligibility, which were defined at the time of the European Council of Copenhagen in 1993 and were supplemented at the time of the European Council of Madrid in 1995. These are: 

  • political criteria: the stability of the institutions must ensure democracy, the Rule of law, human rights as well as the respect and protection of minorities;
  • economic criteria: the existence of a viable market economy, the capacity to cope with the pressure of competition and the forces of the market inside the EU;
  • the capacity to assume the obligations of Member State, rising from the right and the policies of the EU (or community asset), including adhesion with the objectives of the political, economic and monetary Union.

Before we get it all started, let us say how proud we are to be Burgundians.

Burgundy is a small region of the North East of France. More precisely, it’s between the Paris Basin and the Saône Valley. It has a strong tradition: for a long time, Burgundy has benefited  from its rich soil, and more particularly of its pretigious vineyards that have made it famous worldwide. It is well known for its production of mustard, snails, all of its huge agricultural areas. It has a history : the Dukes of Burgundy are known all over France for being the closest opponents to the King during the XVth century.


The land of Burgundy is composed of four departments  Yonne, Côte d’Or, Saône et Loire and Nièvre. All of them are really diversified, and rich of their diversity. By crossing the region, you can go from the limestone plateaux of Yonne to the rural areas of the Morvan, from the groves of Charolais to the plains of Saône and the vineyards of Mâcon. In the heart of Europe, Burgundy is crossed by a huge network of roads, railways, and it is truly a European crossroad, a land of welcome and passage.


Dijon, the capital of Burgundy, concentrates, with its metropolitan area, almost half of the population of Côte d’Or !Its activities are mostly turned to  services and wine growing. It is very different from the wide rural areas of the Morvan, that are lowly populated.

Well, that’s all we can say about Burgundy without boring you, readers. Thanks for reading us, please leave some comments !

European capitals

The European Union, as you know, is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. For its good functioning,  the EU has decided not to concentrate its seven institutions in one only city, they are spread across four “Europeans Capital” which are Brussels, Luxembourg, Frankfurt and Strasbourg.

The seats have been a matter of political dispute since the states first failed to reach an agreement at the establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952. However, a final agreement between member states was reached in 1992, and later attached to the Treaty of Amsterdam. Nevertheless, the seat of the European Parliament remains controversial. The work of the Parliament is divided between these four major cities, which is seen as a problem because of the large number of deputies, staff, and documents which need to be moved.


Since the decision of the member states to make Brussels the primary seat of the European institutions in 1997, Brussels has become, with each major institution and now the European Council, the de facto capital of Europe.
In the course of successive enlargements more and more European institutions have been established in the Brussels-Capital Region, which has created a European neighbourhood in the center of the Region.

In the heart of the city the European political bodies are gathered. First, there is  the European Parliament which is the community institution representing the combined 470 million inhabitants of the member states of the EU. As the only EU institution elected directly by universal suffrage, the European Parliament has three fundamental powers: legislative power, budget power and political control of the European institutions.  Brussels hosts deputies three weeks out of every four for additional plenary sessions and the meetings of parliamentary committees and political groups. Then, the Council of the European Union which is made up of representatives of the governments of the EU member states. The Council is the most important legislative body and the decision-making centre of the European Union. There’s also the European Commission, located at Berlaymont, which drives the integration process and it is the only body allowed to propose EU legislation as well as being the guardian of the Treaties. The Commission operates as a cabinet government, with 28 members of the Commission . There is one member per member state, though members are bound to represent the interests of the EU as a whole rather than their home state. The European Council is the summit of the heads of government of  the twenty-eight Member states of the European Union, under the supervision of a president asked to facilitate the compromise. Two European councils take place every year and the aim is to define the main line of the politicy of the Union, essentially regarding foreign policy. The European Economic and Social Committee is the assembly of European economic and social partners and the voice of organised civil society organisations (consumers and other interest groups). It issues the recommendations of its members and defends their interests in the political discussions with the Commission, the Council and the European Parliament. Finally, the Committee of the Regions is the political assembly representing local and regional levels of Europe. The Committee of the Regions must be consulted before any decisions made by the EU on matters that affect the local and regional authorities, such as regional policy, environment, education and transport. It is located on the buildings where we can also find the European Economic and Social Committee.


Luxembourg City is the seat of several institutions of the European Union, including just like Brussels a European  Comission.The majority of these institutions are located in the Kirchberg quarter, in the northeast of the city.

There is the European Court of Justice which is the highest court in the European Union in matters of European Union law. It is part of the Court of Justice of the European Union and its role is to interpret  EU law and ensure its equal implementation across all EU member states. The Court was established in 1952 and is based in Luxembourg. It is composed of one judge per member state, currently 28 , although it normally deals with cases in panels of three, five or thirteen judges. This role distinguishes it from other international jurisdictions because its jurisdiction is compulsory and its decisions are enforced on all in the European Union. The attributions of the Court of justice generally follow  the evolutions of treaties and the increase of the skills of the European Union. We can also find in Luxembourg the European Court of Auditors which was established by the Treaty of Brussels of July 22nd, 1975, and took office in October, 1977. It was raised to the rank of  a European institution, in November 1993, with the coming of the treaty of Maastricht. It is a superior Institution of control which controls the financial management of the European Union, and its institutions. The court of auditors allows the European Union to have an independent external supervisory body, different from the persons in charge of the financial management within the institutions. Then, there’s the European Investment Bank which is the financial institution of the Member states of the European Union. Its main aim is to borrow on financial markets to finance projects within the European Union. The EIB also finances projects except the European Union in particular in the Mediterranean partner countries. Finally, there is the General Secretary of European Parliament whose mission is to coordinate the legislative works and to organize the plenary sessions and the other meetings.


Frankfurt am Main, commonly known as Frankfurt, is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a 2012 population of 687 775. The urban area had an estimated population of 2,300,000 in 2010.  Since the enlargement of the European Union in 2013, the geographic centre of the European Union has been about 40 km (25 mi) east of Frankfurt.

Frankfurt is the largest financial centre in continental Europe and ranks among the world’s leading financial centres. It is home to the European Central Bank, which is the central bank of the eurozone, consisting of 18 European Union member states that have adopted the euro (€) as their common currency and sole legal tender. It is also home to Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange and several large commercial banks. Frankfurt is the richest city in Germany, and one of the most globalized European cites ; indeed, one person in three does not have the German nationality


Strasbourg is the seat of over twenty international institutions, most famously of the Council of Europe and of the European Parliament, of which it is the official seat. Strasbourg is considered as the legislative and democratic capital of the European Union.

Strasbourg is :

the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, the seat of the Council of Europe with all the bodies and organisations affiliated to this institution, the seat of the European Parliament, the seat of the European Ombudsman, the seat of the Eurocorps headquarters, the seat of the Franco-German television channel Arte the seat of the European Science Foundation, the seat of the International Institute of Human Rights, the seat of the Human Frontier Science Program, the seat of the International Commission on Civil Status, the seat of the Assembly of European Régions and the seat of the Centre for European Studies.

France and Germany have created a Eurodistrict straddling the Rhine, combining the Greater Strasbourg and the Ortenau district of Baden-Württemberg, with some common administration. The combined population of this district is 884,988 according to the latest official national statistics.


1 :Introduction to the « lycée Carnot » :

It belongs to the Academy of Dijon and has existed since 1892.

lycee carnot

Lycée Carnot’s history :

Originally, it was created after an accident that occured in 1885 in the former high school of Dijon that was located in the current middle  school Marcelle Pardé. Colonel Marchand decided to build a new high school which would host thousands of students. It was designed by the architect Chaudoué. It was inaugurated on the July, 31st 1893 by the Minister of  Justice : Eugène Guerrin.

In 1894, the high school took its name of « Lycée Carnot » after the murder of President Carnot to pay tribute to this family.

During the first world war, the high school was used as a military hospital but continued to function also as a high school. During the interwar period, the high school signed agreements with Czechoslovakia, since 1920, the Lycée Carnot hosts Czechs students recruited by means of an exam.

During World War II, only the “petit quartier” was used, the morning for the boys and the afternoon for the girls. After the liberation in 1945, significant works were undertaken : roof repairs, installation of heating…

The number of students increased during the following years, the primary school was suppressed. New buildings were built, such as the COSEC located in the park of the high school.

The Lycée Carnot today :

This high-school hosts about two thousand three hundred students from the secondary school to preparatory classes.

The secondary school has about five hundred students

The preparatory classes in the Lycée Carnot represent eight hundred students divided into twenty-four sections from literary classes to preparatory classes to business school.

The high-school proposes the general programs of baccalaureate: the scientific, the economic and social and the literary programs. Under this baccalaureate, the high school proposes different options, such as Chinese…

Since 1999, students can also choose to take the European option: they can follow a non linguistic subject in a foreign language : History and Geography in English or German or Science in English.

It also proposes a technological baccalaureate : the “TMD” (art of music and dance) baccalaureate.

 By Léa, Solène and Marie

II. Introduction to the trip :

First of all, since we had already been to Ireland in 2013, we didn’t expect to go on a trip this year. However, it’s with gladness that we accepted the proposition of our History teacher, Mr Baudot, to spend some days in Brussels  and get away to London for one day.

At the beginning of the school year, after asking us if we were willing to take part in the travel, Mr Baudot decided to propose his plans to the administration. After many months of expectation, we finally got the permission of the Head to organize our journey.

In order to pay a little less for the trip, our teachers proposed us to sell some things such as chocolates, cups and nougats. There was a sort of «competition» between the two European classes. The winning class would be the one that sold the most. So, it gave us some motivation. Finally, it was successful because we sold for 1350€, which left us 390€ to add an activity to the planned schedule. This money  will enable us to add the visit of a chocolate factory to our schedule.

Besides, we plan to visit the European Parliament and other monuments in Brussels and London. Moreover, during our trip, we will travel by bus and in order to reach the city of London, we will take the train that goes under the English Channel. As for the accomodation, we will eat and sleep in a youthhostel. Finally, we hope that this journey will improve our language skills and inform us better about Europe and its institutions.

Mr Baudot our history-Geography teacher, Mlle Pipon, English teacher and Mme Guillon our CPE are in charge of the trip.

III. Introduction to the class :

We are a European class of year twelve from the « lycée Carnot ». But we are in separated classes : thirteen of us are in an economic class, fourteen are in a science class and two in a literature class. But, we are a European class, so, we learn a part of our History and Geography curriculum in English. The English European Section is ideal for us to enrich our general, historical and geographical culture. It is also the opportunity to be more open-minded and to improve our oral expression and our knowledge of English speaking countries. The English European option gives rise to an oral exam at the end of year thirteen about the history curriculum of the year. If we pass, it will give us a European mention for the baccalaureate. But one of the most important benefits to be in a European class in « Lycée Carnot » is that during all our schooling, we will keep the same class at least one hour a week, actually this year with the English lessons of Mrs Jondot.

2 :Introduction to the trip :

First of all, since we had already been to Ireland in 2013, we didn’t expect to go on a trip this year. However, it’s with gladness that we accepted the proposition of our History teacher, Mr Baudot, to spend some days in Brussels  and get away to London for one day.

At the beginning of the school year, after asking us if we were willing to take part in the travel, Mr Baudot decided to propose his plans to the administration. After many months of expectation, we finally got the permission of the Head to organize our journey.

In order to pay a little less for the trip, our teachers proposed us to sell some things such as chocolates, cups and nougats. There was a sort of «competition» between the two European classes. The winning class would be the one that sold the most. So, it gave us some motivation. Finally, it was successful because we sold for 1350€, which left us 390€ to add an activity to the planned schedule. This money  will enable us to add the visit of a chocolate factory to our schedule.

Besides, we plan to visit the European Parliament and other monuments in Brussels and London. Moreover, during our trip, we will travel by bus and in order to reach the city of London, we will take the train that goes under the English Channel. As for the accomodation, we will eat and sleep in a youthhostel. Finally, we hope that this journey will improve our language skills and inform us better about Europe and its institutions.

Mr Baudot our history-Geography teacher, Mlle Pipon, English teacher and Mme Guillon our CPE are in charge of the trip.

3 : Introduction to the class :

We are a European class of year twelve from the « lycée Carnot ». But we are in separated classes : thirteen of us are in an economic class, fourteen are in a science class and two in a literature class. But, we are a European class, so, we learn a part of our History and Geography curriculum in English. The English European Section is ideal for us to enrich our general, historical and geographical culture. It is also the opportunity to be more open-minded and to improve our oral expression and our knowledge of English speaking countries. The English European option gives rise to an oral exam at the end of year thirteen about the history curriculum of the year. If we pass, it will give us a European mention for the baccalaureate. But one of the most important benefits to be in a European class in « Lycée Carnot » is that during all our schooling, we will keep the same class at least one hour a week, actually this year with the English lessons of Mrs Jondot.